Pinastry Science Duty Logs

Moderator: Kermie Mistwallow

User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

220923.0358

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 220923.0300
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.2 percent
Oxygen = 20.8 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.23 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 5ercent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two less active sunspot-grouping detected with rather minor flares. Minimum communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightned by 0.14 magnitude.


Today's project : The orbital architecture and stability of the μ Arae planetary system

We re-analyze the global orbital architecture and dynamical stability of the HD 160691 planetary system. We have updated the best-fit elements and minimal masses of the planets based on literature precision radial velocity (RV) measurements, now spanning 15 years. This is twice the RVs interval used for the first characterization of the system in 2006. It consists of a Saturn- and two Jupiter-mass planets in low-eccentric orbits resembling the Earth-Mars-Jupiter configuration in the Solar system, as well as the close-in warm Neptune with a mass of ≃ 14 Earth masses. Here, we constrain this early solution with the outermost period to be accurate to one month. The best-fit Newtonian model is characterized by moderate eccentricities of the most massive planets below 0.1 with small uncertainties ≃ 0.02. It is close but meaningfully separated from the 2e:1b mean motion resonance of the Saturn-Jupiter-like pair, but may be close to weak three-body MMRs. The system appears rigorously stable over a safely wide region of parameter space covering uncertainties of several σ. The system stability is robust to a five-fold increase in the minimal masses, consistent with a wide range of inclinations, from ≃ 20○ to 90○. This means that all planetary masses are safely below the brown dwarf mass limit. We found a weak statistical indication of the likely system inclination I ≃ 20○–30○. Given the well constrained orbital solution, we also investigate the structure of hypothetical debris disks, which are analogs of the Main Belt and Kuiper Belt, and may naturally occur in this system.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

220925.0819

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 220925.0915
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.3 percent
Oxygen = 20.7 percent
Argon = 0.89 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.21 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. One sunspot-grouping detected with rather minor flares. Minimum communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightned by 0.04 magnitude.


Today's project : Convective outgassing efficiency in planetary magma oceans: insights from computational fluid dynamics

Planetary atmospheres are commonly thought to result from the efficient outgassing of cooling magma oceans. During this stage, vigorous convective motions in the molten interior are believed to rapidly transport the dissolved volatiles to shallow depths where they exsolve and burst at the surface. This assumption of efficient degassing and atmosphere formation has important implications for planetary evolution, but has never been tested against fluid dynamics considerations. Yet, during a convective cycle, only a finite fraction of the magma ocean can reach the shallow depths where volatiles exsolution can occur, and a large-scale circulation may prevent a substantial magma ocean volume from rapidly reaching the planetary surface. Therefore, we conducted computational fluid dynamics experiments of vigorous 2D and 3D Rayleigh-Bénard convection at Prandtl number of unity to characterize the ability of the convecting fluid to reach shallow depths at which volatiles are exsolved and extracted to the atmosphere. Outgassing efficiency is essentially a function of the magnitude of the convective velocities. This allows deriving simple expressions to predict the time evolution of the amount of outgassed volatiles as a function of the magma ocean governing parameters. For plausible cases, the time required to exsolve all oversaturated water can exceed the magma ocean lifetime in a given highly vigorous transient stage, leading to incomplete or even negligible outgassing. Furthermore, the planet size and the initial magma ocean water content, through the convective vigor and the exsolution depth, respectively, strongly affect magma oceans degassing efficiency, possibly leading to divergent planetary evolution paths and resulting surface conditions. Overall, despite vigorous convection, for a significant range of parameters, convective degassing appears not as efficient as previously thought.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

220926.0609

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 220926.0705
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.2 percent
Oxygen = 20.5 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.27 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. One sunspot-grouping detected with rather minor flares. No communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightned by 0.01 magnitude.

Today's project : The Climate and Compositional Variation of the Highly Eccentric Planet HD 80606 b]{The Climate and Compositional Variation of the Highly Eccentric Planet HD 80606 b -- the rise and fall of carbon monoxide and elemental sulfur

The gas giant HD 80606 b has a highly eccentric orbit (e ∼ 0.93). The variation due to the rapid shift of stellar irradiation provides a unique opportunity to probe the physical and chemical timescales and to study the interplay between climate dynamics and atmospheric chemistry. In this work, we present integrated models to study the atmospheric responses and the underlying physical and chemical mechanisms of HD 80606 b. We first run three-dimensional general circulation models (GCMs) to establish the atmospheric thermal and dynamical structures for different atmospheric metallicities and internal heat. Based on the GCM output, we then adopted a 1D time-dependent photochemical model to investigate the compositional variation along the eccentric orbit. The transition of the circulation patterns of HD 80606 b matched the dynamics regimes in previous works. Our photochemical models show that efficient vertical mixing leads to deep quench levels of the major carbon and nitrogen species and the quenching behavior does not change throughout the eccentric orbit. Instead, photolysis is the main driver of the time-dependent chemistry. A transient state of [CO]/[CH4] > 1 after periastron is confirmed for all metallicity and internal heat cases. The upcoming JWST Cycle 1 GO program will be able to track this real-time CH4--CO conversion and infer the chemical timescale. Furthermore, sulfur species initiated by sudden heating and photochemical forcing exhibit both short-term and long-term cycles, opening an interesting avenue for detecting sulfur on exoplanets.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

220927.0415

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 220927.0705
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.1 percent
Oxygen = 20.2 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.25 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. One sunspot-grouping detected with rather minor flares. No communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightned by 0.05 magnitude.

Today's project : Coronagraphy for DiRect Imaging of Exoplanets (CIDRE) testbed 1: concept, optical set up, and experimental results of adaptive amplitude apodization

Oncoming exoplanet spectro-imagers like the Planetary Camera and Spectrograph (PCS) for the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) will aim for a new class of exoplanets, including Earth-like planets evolving around M dwarfs i.e., closer than 0.1'' with contrasts around 10^-8. This can be achieved with coronagraphs to modulate the wavefront. Classical coronagraphs are not optimal: 1) they impose a planetary photon loss, which is particularly problematic when the instrument includes a high spectral-resolution spectrograph, 2) some aberrations such as the missing segments of the ELT are dynamic and not compatible with a static coronagraph design, 3) the coupling of the exoplanet image with a fiber for spectroscopy only requires the electric field to be controlled on a small region of the detector. Such instruments would benefit from an adaptive tool to modulate the wavefront in both amplitude and phase. We propose to combine in the pupil plane a deformable mirror (DM) to control the phase and a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) i.e., an array made of 1920*1080 micro-mirrors able to switch between two positions, to control its amplitude. If the DM is already well-known in the field in particular for adaptive optics applications, the DMD has so far not been fully considered. At IPAG, we are currently assembling a testbed called CIDRE (Coronagraphy for DiRect Imaging of Exoplanets) to develop, test, calibrate, and validate the combination of these two components with a Lyot coronagraph. Since March 2422, CIDRE is assembled albeit without the Lyot coronagraph yet. The first few months have been dedicated to the calibration of the DMD. Since May 2422, it is operational and used to test dynamic amplitude apodization coronagraphs (so-called Shaped Pupils). This proceeding presents the set up of the CIDRE testbench and the first experimental results on adaptive Shaped Pupils obtained with the DMD.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

220927.2345

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 220928.0030
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.2 percent
Oxygen = 20.2 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.24 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. One sunspot-grouping detected with rather minor flares. No communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightned by 0.07 magnitude.

Today's project : Redundant Apodized Pupils (RAP) for high-contrast imagers robust to segmentation-due aberrations and island effects


The imaging and characterization of a larger range of exoplanets, down to young Jupiters and exo-Earths will require accessing very high contrasts at small angular separations with an increased robustness to aberrations, three constraints that drive current instrumentation development. This goal relies on efficient coronagraphs set up on extremely large diameter telescopes such as the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT), or the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). However, they tend to be subject to specific aberrations that drastically deteriorate the coronagraph performance: their primary mirror segmentation implies phasing errors or even missing segments, and the size of the telescope imposes large spiders, generating low-wind effect as already observed on the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/SPHERE instrument or at the Subaru telescope, or adaptive-optics-due petaling, studied in simulations in the ELT case. The ongoing development of coronagraphs has then to take into account their sensitivity to such errors. We propose an innovative method to generate coronagraphs robust to primary mirror phasing errors and low-wind and adaptive-optics-due petaling effect. This method is based on the apodization of the segment or petal instead of the entire pupil, this apodization being then repeated to mimic the pupil redundancy. We validate this so-called Redundant Apodized Pupil (RAP) method on a James Webb Space Telescope-like pupil composed of 18 hexagonal segments segments to align, and on the VLT architecture in the case of residual low-wind effect.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

220928.2326

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 220929.0030
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.3 percent
Oxygen = 20.6 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.23 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. One sunspot-grouping detected with rather minor flares. No communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightned by 0.12 magnitude.

Today's project : Gaia-TESS synergy: Improving the identification of transit candidates

Context: The TESS team periodically issues a new list of transiting exoplanet candidates based on the analysis of the accumulating light curves obtained by the satellite. The list includes the estimated epochs, periods, and durations of the potential transits. As the point spread function (PSF) of TESS is relatively wide, follow-up photometric observations at higher spatial resolution are required in order to exclude apparent transits that are actually blended background eclipsing binaries (BEBs). Aims: The Gaia space mission, with its growing database of epoch photometry and high angular resolution, enables the production of distinct light curves for all sources included in the TESS PSF, up to the limiting magnitude of Gaia. This paper reports the results of an ongoing Gaia-TESS collaboration that uses the Gaia photometry to facilitate the identification of BEB candidates and even to confirm on-target candidates in some cases. Methods: We inspected the Gaia photometry of the individual sources included in the TESS PSF, searching for periodic dimming events compatible with their ephemerides and uncertainties, as published by TESS. The performance of the search depends mainly on the number of Gaia measurements during transit and their precision. Results: Since February 2421, the collaboration has been able to confirm 126 on-target candidates and exclude 124 as BEBs. Since June 2421, when our search methodology matured, we have been able to identify on the order of 5% as on-target candidates and another 5% as BEBs. Conclusions: This synergistic approach is combining the complementary capabilities of two of the astronomical space missions of NASA and ESA. It serves to optimize the process of detecting new planets by making better use of the resources of the astronomical community.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

220929.2308

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 220930.0005
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.1 percent
Oxygen = 20.5 percent
Argon = 0.89 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.22 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. One sunspot-grouping detected with rather minor flares. No communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightned by 0.01 magnitude.

Today's project : The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Stable radial-velocity variations at the rotation period of AD~Leonis -- A test case study of current limitations to treating stellar activity

Context: A challenge with radial-velocity (RV) data is disentangling the origin of signals either due to a planetary companion or to stellar activity. In fact, the existence of a planetary companion has been proposed, as well as contested, around the relatively bright, nearby M3.0V star AD Leo at the same period as the stellar rotation of 2.23d. Aims: We further investigate the nature of this signal. We introduce new CARMENES optical and near-IR RV data and an analysis in combination with archival data taken by HIRES and HARPS, along with more recent data from HARPS-N, GIANO-B, and HPF. Also, we address the confusion concerning the binarity of AD Leo. Methods: We consider possible correlations between the RVs and various stellar activity indicators accessible with CARMENES. We applied models within a Bayesian framework to determine whether a Keplerian model, a red-noise quasi-periodic model using a Gaussian process, or a mixed model would explain the observed data best. We also exclusively focus on spectral lines potentially associated with stellar activity. Results: The CARMENES RV data agree with the previously reported periodicity of 2.23d, correlate with some activity indicators, and exhibit chromaticity. However, when considering the entire RV data set, we find that a mixed model composed of a stable and a variable component performs best. Moreover, when recomputing the RVs using only spectral lines insensitive to activity, there appears to be some residual power at the period of interest. We therefore conclude that it is not possible to determinedly prove that there is no planet orbiting in synchronization with the stellar rotation given our data, current tools, machinery, and knowledge of how stellar activity affects RVs. We do rule out planets more massive than 27M_E (=0.084M_J). We also exclude any binary companion around AD Leo with Msini > 3-6M_J on orbital periods <14yr.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

221001.0751

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 221001.0850
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.5 percent
Oxygen = 20.1 percent
Argon = 0.89 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.21 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. One sunspot-grouping detected with rather minor flares. No communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightned by 0.04 magnitude.

Today's project : Color Dependence of the Transit Detectability for Young Active M-dwarfs

We investigate the planetary transit detectability in the presence of stellar rotational activity from light curves for young M-dwarfs and estimate improvements of the detection at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Making maps of the transit signal detection efficiency over the orbital period and planetary radius with light curves of members of four clusters, Hyades, Praesepe, Pleiades, and Upper Scorpius observed by the K2 mission, we evaluate the detectability for the rotation period and modulation semi-amplitude. We find that the detection efficiency remarkably decreases to about 20% for rapidly rotators with P_{rot} <= 1 d and the lack of planets in Pleiades is likely due to the high fraction of rapidly rotating M-dwarfs. We also evaluate the improvements of the planet detection with NIR photometry via tests using mock light curves assuming that the signal amplitude of stellar rotation decreases at NIR wavelengths. Our results suggest that NIR photometric monitoring would double relative detection efficiency for transiting planetary candidates with P_{rot} <= 1 d and find planets around M-dwarfs with approximately 100 Myr missing in the past transit surveys from the space.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

221001.2304

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 221002.0005
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.3 percent
Oxygen = 20.2 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.22 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two sunspot-groupings detected with rather minor flares. No communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightned by 0.02 magnitude.

Today's project : A CHEOPS-enhanced view of the HD3167 system

Much remains to be understood about the nature of exoplanets smaller than Neptune, most of which have been discovered in compact multi-planet systems. With its inner ultra-short period planet b aligned with the star and two larger outer planets d-c on polar orbits, the multi-planet system HD 3167 features a peculiar architecture and offers the possibility to investigate both dynamical and atmospheric evolution processes. To this purpose we combined multiple datasets of transit photometry and radial velocimetry (RV) to revise the properties of the system and inform models of its planets. This effort was spearheaded by CHEOPS observations of HD 3167b, which appear inconsistent with a purely rocky composition despite its extreme irradiation. Overall the precision on the planetary orbital periods are improved by an order of magnitude, and the uncertainties on the densities of the transiting planets b and c are decreased by a factor of 3. Internal structure and atmospheric simulations draw a contrasting picture between HD 3167d, likely a rocky super-Earth that lost its atmosphere through photo-evaporation, and HD 3167c, a mini-Neptune that kept a substantial primordial gaseous envelope. We detect a fourth, more massive planet on a larger orbit, likely coplanar with HD 3167d-c. Dynamical simulations indeed show that the outer planetary system d-c-e was tilted, as a whole, early in the system history, when HD 3167b was still dominated by the star influence and maintained its aligned orbit. RV data and direct imaging rule out that the companion that could be responsible for the present-day architecture is still bound to the HD\,3167 system. Similar global studies of multi-planet systems will tell how many share the peculiar properties of the HD3167 system, which remains a target of choice for follow-up observations and simulations.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

221002.2317

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 221003.0015
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.1 percent
Oxygen = 20.1 percent
Argon = 0.87 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.20 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two sunspot-groupings detected with rather minor flares. No communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightned by 0.015 magnitude.

Today's project : The GAPS Programme at TNG
XXXVIII. Five molecules in the atmosphere of the warm giant planet WASP-69b detected at high spectral resolution.

Context. The field of exo-atmospheric characterisation is progressing at an extraordinary pace. Atmospheric observations are now available for tens of exoplanets, mainly hot and warm inflated gas giants, and new molecular species continue to be detected, revealing a richer atmospheric composition than previously expected. Thanks to its warm equilibrium temperature (963 ± 18 K) and low density (0.219 ± 0.031 g cm−3), the close-in gas giant WASP-69b represents a golden target for atmospheric characterisation.

Aims. With the aim of searching for molecules in the atmosphere of WASP-69b and investigating its properties, we performed high-resolution transmission spectroscopy with the GIANO-B near-infrared spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo.

Methods. We observed three transit events of WASP-69b. During a transit, the planetary lines are Doppler-shifted due to the large change in the planet’s radial velocity, allowing us to separate the planetary signal from the quasi-stationary telluric and stellar spectrum.

Results. Considering the three nights together, we report the detection of CH4, NH3, CO, C2H2, and H2O, at more than a 3.3a- level. We did not identify the presence of HCN or CO2 with confidence a level higher than 3a. This is the first time that five molecules have been simultaneously detected in the atmosphere of a warm giant planet. These results suggest that the atmosphere of WASP-69b is possibly carbon-rich and characterised by the presence of disequilibrium chemistry.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

221004.0028

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 221004.0115
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.4 percent
Oxygen = 20.2 percent
Argon = 0.87 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0007 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.22 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two sunspot-groupings detected with rather minor flares. No communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightned by 0.011 magnitude.

Today's project : Constraining the origin of giant exoplanets via elemental abundance measurements

The origin of close-in giant planets is a key open question in planet formation theory. The two leading models are (i) formation at the outer disk followed by migration and (ii) in situ formation. In this work we determine the atmospheric composition of warm Jupiters for both formation scenarios. We perform N-body simulations of planetesimal accretion interior and exterior to the water ice-line for various planetary formation locations, planetary masses, and planetesimal sizes to estimate the accreted heavy-element mass and final planetary composition. We find that the two models differ significantly: migrating giant planets have 2–14 times higher metallicities than planets that form in situ. The ratio between refractories and volatiles is found to be above one for migrating planets but below 0.4 for planets that form in situ. We also identify very different trends between heavy-element enrichment and planetary mass for these two formation mechanisms. While the metallicity of migrating planets is found to increase with decreasing planetary mass, it is about constant for in situ formation. Our study highlights the importance of measuring the atmospheric composition of warm Jupiters and its connection to their formation and evolutionary paths.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

221005.0045

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 221005.0145
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.3 percent
Oxygen = 20.2 percent
Argon = 0.89 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.21 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two sunspot-groupings detected with rather minor flares. No communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightned by 0.03 magnitude.

Today's project : Variability due to climate and chemistry in observations of oxygenated Earth-analogue exoplanets

The Great Oxidation Event was a period during which Earth’s atmospheric oxygen (O2) concentrations increased from ∼10−5 times its present atmospheric level (PAL) to near modern levels, marking the start of the Proterozoic geological eon 2.4 billion years ago. Using WACCM6, an Earth System Model, we simulate the atmosphere of Earth-analogue exoplanets with O2 mixing ratios between 0.1 per cent and 150 per cent PAL. Using these simulations, we calculate the reflection/emission spectra over multiple orbits using the Planetary Spectrum Generator. We highlight how observer angle, albedo, chemistry, and clouds affect the simulated observations. We show that inter-annual climate variations, as well short-term variations due to clouds, can be observed in our simulated atmospheres with a telescope concept such as LUVOIR or HabEx. Annual variability and seasonal variability can change the planet’s reflected flux (including the reflected flux of key spectral features such as O2 and H2O) by up to factors of 5 and 20, respectively, for the same planetary phase. This variability is best observed with a high-throughput coronagraph. For example, HabEx (4 m) with a starshade performs up to a factor of two times better than a LUVOIR B (6 m) style telescope. The variability and signal-to-noise ratio of some spectral features depends non-linearly on atmospheric O2 concentration. This is caused by temperature and chemical column depth variations, as well as generally increased liquid and ice cloud content for atmospheres with O2 concentrations of <1 per cent PAL.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

221005.2342

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 221006.0045
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: Ensign Will Trasher + 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.2 percent
Oxygen = 20.4 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.22 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two sunspot-groupings detected with rather minor flares. No communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Unchanged magnitude the last 24 hrs.

Today's project : ALMA Detection of Dust Trapping around Lagrangian Points in the LkCa 15 Disk

We present deep high-resolution (∼50 mas, 8 au) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 0.88 and 1.3 mm continuum observations of the LkCa 15 disk. The emission morphology shows an inner cavity and three dust rings at both wavelengths, but with slightly narrower rings at the longer wavelength. Along a faint ring at 42 au, we identify two excess emission features at ∼10σ significance at both wavelengths: one as an unresolved clump and the other as an extended arc, separated by roughly 120° in azimuth. The clump is unlikely to be a circumplanetary disk (CPD) as the emission peak shifts between the two wavelengths even after accounting for orbital motion. Instead, the morphology of the 42 au ring strongly resembles the characteristic horseshoe orbit produced in planet–disk interaction models, where the clump and the arc trace dust accumulation around Lagrangian points L4 and L5, respectively. The shape of the 42 au ring, dust trapping in the outer adjacent ring, and the coincidence of the horseshoe ring location with a gap in near-IR scattered light, are all consistent with the scenario of planet sculpting, with the planet likely having a mass between those of Neptune and Saturn. We do not detect pointlike emission associated with a CPD around the putative planet location (0farcs27 in projected separation from the central star at a position angle of ∼60°), with upper limits of 70 and 33 μJy at 0.88 and 1.3 mm, respectively, corresponding to dust mass upper limits of 0.02–0.03 M⊕.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

221007.0007

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 221007.0105
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.1 percent
Oxygen = 20.8 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.20 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Four sunspot-groupings detected with rather minor flares. Slight to medium interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Unchanged magnitude the last 48 hrs.

Today's project : The Interstellar Interlopers

Interstellar interlopers are bodies formed outside of the solar system but observed passing through it. The first two identified interlopers, 1I/`Oumuamua and 2I/Borisov, exhibited unexpectedly different physical properties. 1I/`Oumuamua appeared unresolved and asteroid-like whereas 2I/Borisov was a more comet-like source of both gas and dust. Both objects moved under the action of non-gravitational acceleration. These interlopers and their divergent properties provide our only window so far onto an enormous and previously unknown galactic population. The number density of such objects is ∼ 0.1 AU−3 which, if uniform across the galactic disk, would imply 1025 to 1026 similar objects in the Milky Way. The interlopers likely formed in, and were ejected from, the protoplanetary disks of young stars. However, we currently possess too little data to firmly reject other explanations.


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 358
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 185 times
Been thanked: 54 times
Contact:

221009.0347

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 221009.0300
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.2 percent
Oxygen = 20.9 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.22 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Three sunspot-groupings detected with rather minor flares. Slight to medium interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Dimmed with 0.04 magnitude.

Today's project : A trio of giant planets orbiting evolved star HD 184010

We report the discovery of a triple-giant-planet system around an evolved star HD 184010 (HR 7421, HIP 96016). This discovery is based on observations from Okayama Planet Search Program, a precise radial velocity survey, undertaken at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory between 2004 April and 2021 June. The star is K0 type and located at the beginning of the red giant branch. It has a mass of 1.35+0.19−0.21M⊙⁠, a radius of 4.86+0.55−0.49R⊙⁠, and a surface gravity log g of 3.18+0.08−0.07⁠. The planetary system is composed of three giant planets in a compact configuration: the planets have minimum masses of Mbsini=0.31+0.03−0.04MJ⁠, Mcsini=0.30+0.04−0.05MJ⁠, and Mdsini=0.45+0.04−0.06MJ⁠, and orbital periods of Pb=286.6+2.4−0.7d, Pc=484.3+5.5−3.5d, and Pd=836.4+8.4−8.4d, respectively, which are derived from a triple Keplerian orbital fit to three sets of radial velocity data. The ratio of orbital periods are close to Pd : Pc : Pb ∼ 21 : 12 : 7, which means the period ratios between neighboring planets are both lower than 2 : 1. The dynamical stability analysis reveals that the planets should have near-circular orbits. The system could remain stable over 1 Gyr, initialized from co-planar orbits, low eccentricities (e = 0.05), and planet masses equal to the minimum mass derived from the best-fitting circular orbit fitting. Besides, the planets are not likely in mean motion resonance. The HD 184010 system is unique: it is the first system discovered to have a highly evolved star (log g < 3.5 cgs) and more than two giant planets all with intermediate orbital periods (102 < P < 103 d).


-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
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