Pinastry Science Duty Logs

Moderator: Kermie Mistwallow

User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220820.0659

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22082007.55
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.05 percent
Oxygen = 20.10 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.24 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. One active sunspot-grouping detected with average active flares. No communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Dimmed by 0.019 magnitude in brightness.



Today's project : Precise mass determination for the keystone sub-Neptune planet transiting the mid-type M dwarf G 9-40.

Context. Despite being a prominent subset of the exoplanet population discovered in the past three decades, the nature and provenance of sub-Neptune-sized planets are still one of the open questions in exoplanet science. Aims. For planets orbiting bright stars, precisely measuring the orbital and planet parameters of the system is the best approach to distinguish between competing theories regarding their formation and evolution. Methods. We obtained 69 new radial velocity observations of the mid-M dwarf G 9-40 with the CARMENES instrument to measure for the first time the mass of its transiting sub-Neptune planet, G 9-40 b, discovered in data from the K2 mission. Results. Combined with new observations from the TESS mission during Sectors 44, 45, and 46, we are able to measure the radius of the planet to an uncertainty of 3.4% (Rb = 1.900 +- 0.065 Re) and determine its mass with a precision of 16% (Mb = 4.00 +- 0.63 Me). The resulting bulk density of the planet is inconsistent with a terrestrial composition and suggests the presence of either a water-rich core or a significant hydrogen-rich envelope. Conclusions. G 9-40 b is referred to as a keystone planet due to its location in period-radius space within the radius valley. Several theories offer explanations for the origin and properties of this population and this planet is a valuable target for testing the dependence of those models on stellar host mass. By virtue of its brightness and small size of the host, it joins L 98-59 d as one of the two best warm (Teq ~ 400 K) sub-Neptunes for atmospheric characterization with JWST, which will probe cloud formation in sub-Neptune-sized planets and break the degeneracies of internal composition models.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220820.2306

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22082100.01
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.06 percent
Oxygen = 20.11 percent
Argon = 0.87 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.23 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. One active sunspot-grouping detected with some more active flares. No important communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Dimmed by 0.07 magnitude in brightness.



Today's project : (a simple one, it's sunday after all ;)) Solar and stellar activity cycles -- no synchronization with exoplanets.

Cyclic activity on the Sun and stars is primarily explained by generation of the magnetic field by a dynamo mechanism, which converts the energy of the poloidal field into the energy of the toroidal component due to differential rotation. There is, however, an alternative point of view, which explains the field generation by gravitational influence of the planetary system and, first of all, Jupiter. This hypothesis can be verified by comparing the characteristics of exoplanets with the activity variations on their associated stars. We have performed such a comparison and have drawn a negative conclusion. No relationship between the gravitational influence of the exoplanets and cycle of the host star could be found in any of the cases considered. Moreover, there are reasons to believe that a strong gravitational influence may completely eliminate cyclic variation in stellar activity.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220822.0324

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22082204.20
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's + VAdm Mistwallow
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.08 percent
Oxygen = 20.14 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.21 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. One active sunspot-grouping detected with some more active flares. No important communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Dimmed by 0.01 magnitude in brightness.



Today's project : Atmospheric Thermal Emission Effect on Chandrasekhar's Finite Atmosphere Problem.

The solutions of the \textit{diffuse reflection finite atmosphere problem} are very useful in the astrophysical context. Chandrasekhar was the first to solve this problem analytically, by considering atmospheric scattering. These results have wide applications in the modeling of planetary atmospheres. However, they cannot be used to model an atmosphere with emission. We solved this problem by including \textit{thermal emission effect} along with scattering.Here, our aim is to provide a complete picture of generalized finite atmosphere problem in presence of scattering and thermal emission, and to give a physical account of the same. For that, we take an analytical approach using the invariance principle method to solve the diffuse reflection finite atmosphere problem in the presence of atmospheric thermal emission. We established the general integral equations of modified scattering function S(τ;μ,ϕ;μ0,ϕ0), transmission function T(τ;μ,ϕ;μ0,ϕ0) and their derivatives with respect to τ for a thermally emitting atmosphere. We customize these equations for the case of isotropic scattering and introduce two new functions V(μ) and W(μ), analogous to Chandrasekhar X(μ), and Y(μ) functions respectively. We also derive a transformation relation between the modified S-T functions and give a physical account of V(μ) and W(μ) functions. Our final results are consistent with those of Chandrasekhar at low emission limit (i.e. only scattering). From the consistency of our results, we conclude that the consideration of thermal emission effect in diffuse reflection finite atmosphere problem gives more general and accurate results than considering only scattering.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220823.1121

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22082312.20
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.09 percent
Oxygen = 20.17 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.20 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. One active sunspot-grouping detected and another one evolving with some more active flares. No important communication interference can be expected thus far bot something to keep an eye on. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Dimmed by 0.04 magnitude in brightness.



Today's project : X-ray flares of the young planet host DS Tuc A.

Abridged. We observed the 40 Myr old star DS Tuc A with XMM-Newton and recorded two X-ray bright flares, with the second event occurring about 12 ks after the first one. Their duration from the rise to the end of the decay was of about 8-10 ks in soft X-rays (0.3-10 keV). The flares were also recorded in the band 200-300 nm with the UVM2 filter of the Optical Monitor. The duration of the flares in UV was about 3 ks. The observed delay between the peak in the UV band and in X-rays is a probe of the heating phase followed by the evaporation and increase of density and emission measure of the flaring loop. The coronal plasma temperature at the two flare peaks reached 54-55 MK. The diagnostics based on temperatures and time scales of the flares applied to these two events allow us to infer a loop length of 5-7 x 10^10 cm, which is about the size of the stellar radius. We also infer values of electron density at the flare peaks of 2.3-6.5 x 10^11 cm^-3 , and a minimum magnetic field strength of order of 300-500 G needed to confine the plasma. The energy released during the flares was of order of 5-8 x 10^34 erg in the band 0.3-10 keV and 0.9-2.7 x 10^33 erg in the UV band (200-300 nm). We speculate that the flares were associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) that hit the planet about 3.3 hr after the flares and dramatically increasing the rate of evaporation of the planet. From the RGS spectra we retrieved the emission measure distribution and the abundances of coronal metals during the quiescent and the flaring states. In agreement with what inferred from time resolved spectroscopy and EPIC spectra, also from the analysis of RGS spectra during the flares we infer a high electron density.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220824.0600

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22082401.15
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.07 percent
Oxygen = 20.15 percent
Argon = 0.87 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0007 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.19 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. One active sunspot-grouping detected and another one evolving with some more active flares. No important communication interference can be expected thus far bot something to keep an eye on. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Dimmed by 0.01 magnitude in brightness.



Today's project : VapoRock: Thermodynamics of vaporized silicate melts for modeling volcanic outgassing and magma ocean atmospheres.

Silicate vapors play a key role in planetary evolution, especially dominating early stages of rocky planet formation through outgassed magma ocean atmospheres. Our open-source thermodynamic modeling software "VapoRock" combines the MELTS liquid model (Ghiorso et al. 1995) with gas-species properties from multiple thermochemistry tables (e.g. Chase et al. 1998). VapoRock calculates abundances of 34 gaseous species in equilibrium with magmatic liquid in the system Si-Mg-Fe-Al-Ca-Na-K-Ti-Cr-O at desired temperatures and oxygen fugacities (fO2, or partial pressure of O2). Comparison with experiments shows that pressures and melt-oxide activities (which vary over many orders of magnitude) are reproduced within a factor of ~3, consistent with measurement uncertainties. We also benchmark against a wide selection of igneous rock compositions including bulk silicate Earth, predicting elemental vapor abundances that are comparable (Na, Ca, & Al) or more realistic (K, Si, Mg, Fe, & Ti) than those of the closed-source MAGMA code (with maximum deviations by factors of 30-300 for K). Calculated vapor abundances depend critically on liquid activities, and the MELTS model underpinning VapoRock was specifically calibrated on natural igneous liquids and has been extensively tested & refined over the last 3 decades. In contrast, MAGMA's underlying liquid model assumes ideal mixtures of liquid pseudo-species, which are incapable of capturing the non-ideal compositional interactions that typify the behavior of natural silicate melts. Using VapoRock, we finally explore how relative abundances of SiO and SiO2 provide a spectroscopically measurable proxy for oxygen fugacity in devolatilized exoplanetary atmospheres, potentially constraining fO2 in outgassed exoplanetary mantles.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220825.0330

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22082503.15
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.09 percent
Oxygen = 20.17 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0009 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.14 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two active sunspot-groupings detected with some active flares. No important communication interference can be expected thus far bot something to keep an eye on. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Dimmed by 0.08 magnitude in brightness.


Today's project : Euclid-Roman joint microlensing survey: Early mass measurement, free floating planets, and exomoons.

As the Kepler mission has done for hot exoplanets, the ESA Euclid and NASA Roman missions have the potential to create a breakthrough in our understanding of the demographics of cool exoplanets, including unbound, or free-floating, planets (FFPs). Roman will dedicate part of its core survey program to the detection of cool exoplanets via microlensing, while Euclid may undertake a microlensing program as an ancillary science goal. In this study, we demonstrate the complementarity of the two missions and propose two joint surveys to better constrain the mass and distance of microlensing events. We first demonstrate that an early brief Euclid survey (~7 h) of the Roman microlensing fields will allow the measurement of at least 30% of the events’ relative proper motions µrel and 42% of the lens magnitudes. This survey would place strong constraints on the mass and distance on thousands of microlensing events observed by Roman just after the first year of observation. Then, we study the potential of simultaneous observations by Roman and Euclid to enable the measurement of the microlensing parallax for the shortest microlensing events and, ultimately, obtain a direct measurement of the masses, distances, and transverse motions of FFPs. Using detailed simulations of the joint detection yield we show that within one year Roman-Euclid observations will be at least an order of magnitude more sensitive than current ground-based measurements. The recent tentative detection of an excess of short-duration events by the OGLE survey is consistent with a scenario of up to ten Earth-mass FFPs per Galactic star. For such a scenario a joint Roman-Euclid campaign should detect around 130 FFP events within a year, including 110 with measured parallax that strongly constrain the FFP mass, and around 30 FFP events with direct mass and distance measurements. The ability of the joint survey to completely break the microlens mass-distance-velocity degeneracy for a significant subset of events provides a unique opportunity to verify unambiguously the FFP hypothesis or else place abundance limits for FFPs between Earth and Jupiter masses that are up to two orders of magnitude stronger than provided by ground-based surveys. Finally, we study the capabilities of the joint survey to enhance the detection and characterization of exomoons, and find that it could lead to the detection of the first exomoon.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220826.0058

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22082601.55
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.06 percent
Oxygen = 20.15 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0009 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.17 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two active sunspot-groupings detected with some active flares. No important communication interference can be expected thus far bot something to keep an eye on. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Dimmed by 0.12 magnitude in brightness.


Today's project : A mini-chemical scheme with net reactions for 3D general circulation models

Context. Growing evidence has indicated that the global composition distribution plays an indisputable role in interpreting observational data. Three-dimensional general circulation models (GCMs) with a reliable treatment of chemistry and clouds are particularly crucial in preparing for upcoming observations. In attempts to achieve 3D chemistry-climate modeling, the challenge mainly lies in the expensive computing power required for treating a large number of chemical species and reactions.

Aims. Motivated by the need for a robust and computationally efficient chemical scheme, we devise a mini-chemical network with a minimal number of species and reactions for H2-dominated atmospheres.

Methods. We apply a novel technique to simplify the chemical network from a full kinetics model, VULCAN, by replacing a large number of intermediate reactions with net reactions. The number of chemical species is cut down from 67 to 12, with the major species of thermal and observational importance retained, including H2O, CH4, CO, CO2, C2H2, NH3, and HCN. The size of the total reactions is also greatly reduced, from ~800 to 20. We validated the mini-chemical scheme by verifying the temporal evolution and benchmarking the predicted compositions in four exoplanet atmospheres (GJ 1214b, GJ 436b, HD 189733b, and HD 209458b) against the full kinetics of VULCAN.

Results. The mini-network reproduces the chemical timescales and composition distributions of the full kinetics well within an order of magnitude for the major species in the pressure range of 1 bar–0.1 mbar across various metallicities and carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) ratios.

Conclusions. We have developed and validated a mini-chemical scheme using net reactions to significantly simplify a large chemical network. The small scale of the mini-chemical scheme permits simple use and fast computation, which is optimal for implementation in a 3D GCM or a retrieval framework. We focus on the thermochemical kinetics of net reactions in this paper and address photochemistry in a follow-up paper.

-- end log --
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220827.0234

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22082703.30
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.07 percent
Oxygen = 20.16 percent
Argon = 0.85 percent (higher than normal fluctuation, to be followed up).
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.19 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two active sunspot-groupings detected with some active flares. No important communication interference can be expected thus far bot something to keep an eye on. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Dimmed by 0.04 magnitude in brightness.


Today's project : First principles of terrestrial life: exemplars for potential extra-terrestrial biology

The search for life elsewhere in the universe represents not only a potential expansion of our knowledge regarding life, but also a clarification of the first principles applicable to terrestrial life, which thus restrict the very search for extra-terrestrial life. Although there are no exact figures for how many species have existed throughout Earth's total history, we can still make inferences about how the distribution of this life has proceeded through a bell curve. This graph shows the totality of life, from its origin to its end. The system enclosing life contains a number of first principles designated the walls of minimal complexity and adaptive possibility, the fence of adaptation, and right-skewed extension. In this discussion of life, a framework will be formulated that, based on the dynamic relationship between mesophiles and extremophiles, will be imposed on exoworlds in order to utilize the graph's predictive power to analyze how extra-terrestrial life could unfold. In this framework the evolutionary variation does not depend on the specific biochemistry involved. Once life is ‘up and running,’ the various biochemical systems that can constitute terrestrial and extra-terrestrial life will have secondary significance. The extremophilic tail represents a range expansion in which all habitat possibilities are tested and occupied. This tail moves to the right not because of the biochemistry constitutions of organisms, but because it can do nothing else. Thus, it can be predicted that graphs of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial life will be similar overall. A number of other predictions can be made; for example, for worlds in which the atmospheric disequilibrium is approaching equilibrium, it is predicted that life may still be present because the extremophilic range expansion is stretched increasingly farther to the right. Because life necessarily arises at a left wall of minimal complexity, it is predicted that any origin of cellular life will have a close structural resemblance to that of the first terrestrial life. Thus, in principle, life may have originated more than once on Earth, and still exist. It is also predicted that there may be an entire subset of life existing among other domains that we do not see because, in an abstract sense, we are inside the graph. If we view the graph in its entirety, this subset appears very much like a vast supra-domain of life.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220828.0648

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22082803.00
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.07 percent
Oxygen = 20.17 percent
Argon = 0.86 percent (higher than normal fluctuation, to be followed up).
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.17 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two active sunspot-groupings detected and two other forming with some active flares. Slight communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Dimmed by 0.02 magnitude in brightness.


Today's project : TOI-4562 b: A highly eccentric temperate Jupiter analog orbiting a young field star

We report the discovery of TOI-4562 b (TIC-349576261), a Jovian planet orbiting a young F7V-type star, younger than the Praesepe/Hyades clusters (∼ 300-400 Myr). This planet stands out because of its unusually long orbital period for transiting planets with known masses (Porb = 225.11757+0.00027−0.00025 days), and because it has a substantial eccentricity (e = 0.81+0.05−0.05). The location of TOI-4562 near the southern continuous viewing zone of TESS allowed observations throughout 25 sectors, enabling an unambiguous period measurement from TESS alone. Alongside the four available TESS transits, we performed follow-up photometry using the South African Astronomical Observatory node of the Las Cumbres Observatory, and spectroscopy with the CHIRON spectrograph on the 1.5 m SMARTS telescope. We measure a radius of 1.072+0.044−0.043 RJup, and a mass of 3.29+1.88−0.82 MJup,for TOI-4562 b. The radius of the planet is consistent with contraction models describing the early evolution of the size of giant planets. We detect tentative transit timing variations at the ∼ 20 min level from five transit events, favouring the presence of a companion that could explain the dynamical history of this system if confirmed by future follow-up observations. With its current orbital configuration, tidal timescales are too long for TOI-4562 b to become a hot-Jupiter via high eccentricity migration, though it is not excluded that interactions with the possible companion could modify TOI-4562 b's eccentricity and trigger circularization. The characterisation of more such young systems is essential to set constraints on models describing giant planet evolution.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220829.0201

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22082902.50
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.08 percent
Oxygen = 20.19 percent
Argon = 0.87 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.19 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Three active sunspot-groupings detected with some active flares. Slight communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Dimmed by 0.01 magnitude in brightness.


Today's project : Transmission spectroscopy of the ultra-hot Jupiter MASCARA-4 b: Disentangling the hydrostatic and exospheric regimes of ultra-hot Jupiters

Ultra-hot Jupiters (UHJs), rendering the hottest planetary atmospheres, offer great opportunities of detailed characterisation with high-resolution spectroscopy. MASCARA-4 b is a recently discovered close-in gas giant belonging to this category. In order to refine system and planet parameters, we carried out radial velocity measurements and transit photometry with the CORALIE spectrograph and EulerCam at the Swiss 1.2m Euler telescope. We observed two transits of MASCARA-4 b with the high-resolution spectrograph ESPRESSO at ESO's Very Large Telescope. We searched for atomic, ionic, and molecular species via individual absorption lines and cross-correlation techniques. These results are compared to literature studies on UHJs characterised to date. With CORALIE and EulerCam observations, we updated the mass of MASCARA-4 b (1.675 +/- 0.241 Jupiter masses) as well as other system and planet parameters. In the transmission spectrum derived from ESPRESSO observations, we resolve excess absorption by Hα, Hβ, Na D1 & D2, Ca+ H & K, and a few strong individual lines of Mg, Fe and Fe+. We also present the cross-correlation detection of Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe and Fe+. The absorption strength of Fe+ significantly exceeds the prediction from a hydrostatic atmospheric model, as commonly observed in other UHJs. We attribute this to the presence of Fe+ in the exosphere due to hydrodynamic outflows. This is further supported by the positive correlation of absorption strengths of Fe+ with the Hα line. Comparing transmission signatures of various species in the UHJ population allows us to disentangle the hydrostatic regime (as traced via the absorption by Mg and Fe) from the exospheres (as probed by Hα and Fe+) of the strongly irradiated atmospheres.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220829.2345

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22082900.40
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.09 percent
Oxygen = 20.19 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.21 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Three active sunspot-groupings detected with some active flares. Slight communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Unchanged in brightness.

Today's project : SCALES (Slicer Combined with an Array of Lenslets for Exoplanet Spectroscopy) is a 2 to 5 micron high-contrast lenslet-based Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) designed to characterize exoplanets and their atmospheres. Like other lenslet-based IFSs, SCALES produces a short micro-spectrum of each lenslet's micro-pupil. We have developed an image slicer that sits behind the lenslet array and dissects and rearranges a subset of micro-pupils into a pseudo-slit. The combination lenslet array and slicer (or slenslit) allows SCALES to produce much longer spectra, thereby increasing the spectra resolution by over an order of magnitude and allowing for comparisons to atmospheric modeling at unprecedented resolution. This proceeding describes the design and performance of the slenslit.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220830.2319

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22083000.15
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.07 percent
Oxygen = 20.18 percent
Argon = 0.88 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0007 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.23 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Reduced to two moderately active sunspot-groupings detected with some active flares. Slight communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightened with 0.25 magnitude.

Today's project : Nulling interferometry in space does not require a rotating telescope array.

Space borne nulling interferometry in the mid-infrared waveband is one of the most promising techniques for characterizing the atmospheres of extra-solar planets orbiting in the habitable zone of their parent star, and possibly discovering life markers. One of its most difficult challenges is the control of free-flying telescope spacecrafts moving around a central combiner in order to modulating the planet signal, within accuracy better than one micrometer at least. Moreover, the whole array must be reconfigured regularly in order to observe different celestial targets, thus increasing the risk of loosing one or more spacecrafts and aborting the mission before its normal end. In this paper is described a simplified optical configuration where the telescopes do not need to be rotated, and the number of necessary array reconfigurations is minimized. It allows efficient modulation of the planet signal, only making use of rotating prisms or mirrors located into the central combiner. In this paper the general principle of a nulling interferometer with a fixed telescope array is explained. Mathematical relations are established in order to determining the planet modulation signal. Numerical simulations are carried out for three different arrangements of the collecting telescopes. They confirm that nulling interferometry in space does not require a rotating telescope array.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220901.0050

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22090101.50
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.08 percent
Oxygen = 20.19 percent
Argon = 0.86 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.22 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two moderately active sunspot-groupings detected with some active flares. Slight communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightened with 0.02 magnitude.

Today's project : Field of View and contrast limitations of stellar interferometers. A quick review

Field of View (FoV) and contrast limitations of stellar interferometers have been the scope of numerous publications for more than thirty years. Recently, this topic regained some interest since long-baseline terrestrial interferometers or space borne nulling interferometers are envisioned for detecting and characterizing extra-solar planets orbiting in the habitable zone of their parent star. This goal supposes to achieving sufficient contrast ratio in the high angular frequency domain, thus on the whole interferometer FoV. In this paper are reviewed some of the contrast and FoV limiting factors, including spectral bandwidth, flux mismatches, fringe tracking, telescope image quality, atmosphere seeing, optical conjugation mismatch of the telescopes pupils, influence of anamorphous optics, pupil aberrations, signal-to-noise ratio and deviations with respect to the golden rule of imaging interferometers. Finally, a tentative classification of all these factors is provided.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220902.0431

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22090204.50
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.08 percent
Oxygen = 20.21 percent
Argon = 0.85 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.19 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two moderately active sunspot-groupings detected with some active flares. Slight communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightened with 0.08 magnitude.

Today's project : Characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres with SLOPpy.

Transmission spectroscopy is among the most fruitful techniques to infer the main opacity sources present in the upper atmosphere of a transiting planet and to constrain the composition of the thermosphere and of the unbound exosphere. Not having a public tool able to automatically extract a high-resolution transmission spectrum creates a problem of reproducibility for scientific results. As a consequence, it is very difficult to compare the results obtained by different research groups and to carry out a homogeneous characterization of the exoplanetary atmospheres. In this work, we present a standard, publicly available, user-friendly tool, named SLOPpy (Spectral Lines Of Planets with python), to automatically extract and analyze the optical transmission spectrum of exoplanets as accurately as possible. Several data reduction steps are first performed by SLOPpy to correct the input spectra for sky emission, atmospheric dispersion, the presence of telluric features and interstellar lines, center-to-limb variation, and Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, thus making it a state-of-the-art tool. The pipeline has successfully been applied to HARPS and HARPS-N data of ideal targets for atmospheric characterization. To first assess the code's performance and to validate its suitability, here we present a comparison with the results obtained from the previous analyses of other works on HD 189733 b, WASP-76 b, WASP-127 b, and KELT-20 b. Comparing our results with other works that have analyzed the same datasets, we conclude that this tool gives results in agreement with the published results within 1σ most of the time, while extracting, with SLOPpy, the planetary signal with a similar or higher statistical significance.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
User avatar
Ferre Flamand
Sciences - Lieutenant
Sciences - Lieutenant
Posts: 366
Joined: 211111.0543
Duty Post: Vice Chief Science Officer
Ship/Station Posted: SS Tranquility
Grid: Second Life
Location: Belgium
Has thanked: 194 times
Been thanked: 56 times
Contact:

220903.2333

Tranquility Station/Ops + Tranquility Science Lab - Stardate 22090400.30
Reporting Officer: Lt Ferre Flamand
Other Officers on Duty: 4 NPC's
Duty Log
Daily Scientific and Observation Report


Surface environmental conditions

Nitrogen = 77.07 percent
Oxygen = 20.20 percent
Argon = 0.86 percent
Neon, Helium, Krypton = 0.0008 percent
Carbon dioxide = 0.21 percent
Water vapor = 0 - 4 percent

Fauna and Flora = All specific data found in local database.
Daystar condition = Thermal radiation within acceptable margins. Two moderately active sunspot-groupings detected with some active flares. Slight communication interference can be expected. Warming-up sequence at normal rate within range.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) its variable magnitude intervals within range. Brightened with 0.04 magnitude.

Today's project : MARVEL: extracting high-precision radial velocities of exoplanet hosts.

The future ESA space mission PLATO aims to detect thousands of exoplanets, including Earth-like planets, and constrain their radius and mean density. To achieve this goal, the space based photometric observations are not enough but need to be complemented by ground-based observations to measure the Radial Velocity (RV) of the exoplanet host stars. MARVEL is such a facility consisting of four 80 cm telescope linked through optical fibers to a single high-resolution ´echelle spectrograph, designed for high-precision RV measurements with a uncertainty of ∼ 1 ms−1 . MARVEL is build by a consortium led by the KU LEUVEN (my hometown :)) with contributions from the UK, Austria, Australia, Sweden, Denmark, and Spain, and will be commissioned in 2423. To reach such high RV precision, not only ultra-stable hardware is currently being developed, but also a state-of-the-art data processing pipeline.

-- end log --

:communicator: Lt Ferre Flamand
Vice Chief Science Officer
SS Tranquility
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